General rules and basic information about data citation

In the same way that you cite journal articles and books you reference in your publication, you may also need to cite any data your publication uses.

Citing data sets (spreadsheets etc.) is necessary to provide context and to give credit to your research.

Some style guides provide instructions for the citation of data, but if you can’t find a list of general rules, then consider these few elements when building your data citation:

Author: Creator of the data set (individual, group of individuals, organization).

Title: Title of the data set or name of the study.

Edition or Version: Version or edition number associated with the data set.

Date: Year of data publication.

Editor: Person or team responsible for compiling or editing the data set.

Publisher (= distributor): Entity (and location) responsible for producing and/or distributing the data set.

Producer: Organization that sponsored the author’s research and/or organization that made the creation of the data set possible, such as codifying and digitizing the data.

Material: Computer file or online article.

Electronic Retrieval Location: Web address where the data set is available including persistent identifier like DOI.

Examples using these General Rules:

APA (6th edition)

Smith, T.W., Marsden, P.V., & Hout, M. (2011). General social survey, 1972-2010 cumulative file (ICPSR31521-v1) [data file and codebook]. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor]. doi: 10.3886/ICPSR31521.v1

MLA (7th edition)

Smith, Tom W., Peter V. Marsden, and Michael Hout. General Social Survey, 1972-2010 Cumulative File. ICPSR31521-v1. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center [producer]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011. Web. 23 Jan 2012. doi:10.3886/ICPSR31521.v1

Chicago (16th edition) (author-date)

Smith, Tom W., Peter V. Marsden, and Michael Hout. 2011. General Social Survey, 1972-2010 Cumulative File. ICPSR31521-v1. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center. Distributed by Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. doi:10.3886/ICPSR31521.v1

Also note that versions X5 and above of Endnote have a template for the ‘dataset’ reference type.

See the Endnote manual for information on how to use this reference type if you are unsure.

The library will be happy to help with data set citation.

Referencing databases

How to cite specialist company and financial databases

A veru useful guide created by the Manchester Business School Library ‘considers a database as similar to an e-book’  and therefore suggests you use the database name as the author. For example, the citation would be (Datastream, 2012) rather than (Thomson Reuters, 2012) The reader can find the specific database used in the list of references.

As a general rule, this format can be adopted:

Author =Database name, (year)

Full database title,  [consulted via]

Available at: Subscription Service (accessed: Date accessed)

For example, to cite a full databse:

Bloomberg. (2012) Bloomberg Professional. [Online]. Available at: Subscription Service (Accessed: 3 January 2014)

Or a report from within a specific database:

Bloomberg. (2012) “Company information for Rolls Royce PLC”, Bloomberg Professional. [Online]. Available at: Bloomberg Subscription Service (Accessed: 19 November 2012)

Business Research Plus, the MBS Library blog is full of valuable information. Have a look!

Publishing in journals – Understanding your rights

Bonnie Swoger’s article ‘Understanding your rights: pre-prints, post-prints and publisher versions’ in Scientific American, once again raises the issue surrounding journal copyright, and the disparities between each journal and the type of version allowed to be uploaded to repositories.

As Elsevier has been criticised for asking some platforms to go as far as to remove copies of articles already published in some of its journals, clarification is needed on the restrictions imposed by publishers, and the different versions which may be uploaded to different repositories.

In her article, Swoger, a Science and Technology Librarian in New York, defines clearly the different print versions as follows:

‘Pre-print – A pre-print is the original version of the manuscript as it is submitted to a journal. While the authors may have sought help from their colleagues in selecting data analysis techniques, improving manuscript clarity, and correcting grammar, the pre-print has not been through a process of peer review. It typically looks like a term paper – a double spaced .doc file with minimal formatting.’

‘Post-print – A post-print is a document that has been through the peer review process and incorporated reviewers comments. It is the final version of the paper before it is sent off the the journal for publication. It may be missing a final copyedit (if the journal still does that) and won’t be formatted to look like the journal. It still looks like the double spaced .doc file. Sometimes, the term “pre-print” is used interchangeably with “post-print,” but when it comes to permissions issues, it is important to clarify which version of a manuscript is being discussed.’

‘Publishers version/PDF – This is the version of record that is published on the publishers website. It will look quite spiffy, having been professionally typeset by the publisher. Library databases will link to this version of the paper.’

In general, publishers most commonly allow pre-print versions to be uploaded to repositories. However, each case, publisher and copyright agreement is different, and must be verified before publication.

One useful tool, which Swoger also identifies for finding summaries of copyright agreements is SHERPA/RoMEO which classifies journals according to what extent a journal will allow you to share your published articles, in what format, and under what conditions they will allow that sharing.

More information about this resource can be found in the previous blog post.

New Web of Science YouTube channel

Thomson Reuters Web of Science has recently started its own YouTube channel, displaying videos and tutorials on how to make the most of its services.

Each video lasts around 5 minutes, and provides a step by step method for performing different searches, exporting records and explaining indicators, such as impact factors and immediacy indexes.

It also offers suggestions on how and where to find further information using other Thomson Reuters programmes.

The channel, maintained by the Thomson Reuters Scientific & Scholarly Research Training Team, can be found by clicking here, or by searching for ‘web of science’ via YouTube.

New service on offer: Multi-Source search of HEC classified journals

New service on offer: Multi-Source search of HEC classified journals

 Which journals classified by HEC (A, B +, B or C) dealt with the subjects “Earnings Management” or “Financial Distress” the most over the last 10 years?

Which journals have published the most authors from HEC Paris?

If you want the answers to this type of question, ask the library for the answer!

We have implemented a multi source search of all journals ranked by HEC, across a wide range of research fields. The results will be presented in the form of an excel file containing the relevant algorithm results from Ebsco and will be sortable by many fields (name of journal, author, letter from HEC ranking …).

In addition, each article posted contains links to the full text, with remote access

Contact us for more details.

Have you got your ORCID numbet yet?

Have you got your ORCID numbet yet?

orcid logo

What is ORCiD?

ORCiD, or “Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative” is an alphanumeric code uniquely assigned to scientific and academic authors.


Why to get an ORCiD I.D.?

· Due to many duplicates or variations of a single personal name, one particular author’s contributions to academia can be hard to electronically recognize.
· Similarly, with name changes due to marriage, cultural differences in name order and differing writing systems, inconsistent use of a name and first-name abbreviations, and even false identities, many works can become lost or confused in a sea of “John Smiths”.
· Its free.
· An unchangeable and universally recognized identity, as offered by ORCiD, therefore makes attribution of works, and discovery of articles much easier; your work is much more easily distinguishable from others with similar names; you can therefore easily add your unique identity to research objects across disciplines without having to consistently re-enter the same data.
· Launched in October 2012, ORCiD now has over 65 member organizations, including many publishers, such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and Thomson Reuters Research.


How to register?

Visit and click on “register”
Registration takes no more than 30 seconds, and you can use your ORCID identifier whenever you submit works, on your peronal website, when applying for funding, or in any research workflow to ensure you get the deserved credit for your work.